Countries with significant benefits for biodiversity conservation and the high cost of biodiversity conservation (short for BC), the Bonn Convention for the Conservation of Migratory Species for Wildlife of 1979 and 1994 was signed in the United Kingdom in 1979 and calls for the protection of classified migratory species and calls for separate international agreements on these and other threatened species. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species in 1973 (CITES) regulates international trade in wildlife through a system of permits and certificates. CITES came into force in 1975 and currently has more than 150 contracting parties. The United Kingdom became a party to the Convention in 1976 and the European Union, although not a party to the Convention, fully implemented it through a number of Council and Commission decisions. For more information, visit The European Community and Trade in Wild FAUNA AND FLORA and CITES UK. An example of a BC country is Indonesia. According to the GEF Biodiversity Benefits Index (World Bank 2008), Indonesia`s biodiversity potential is very high; However, conservation measures are relatively costly for the government. Indonesia is one of the countries richest in biodiversity. Nevertheless, the costs of conservation opportunity are very high, as the country`s industry is growing rapidly and putting pressure on its nature. The Bc category reflects countries such as Australia.
The country also has relatively significant benefits for biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, the opportunity cost of conservation is relatively low in Australia. An example of a bC country is Mali, where the potential for biodiversity is low in terms of the species represented and habitat diversity, but where the cost of conservation measures is high. Finally, the BC category reflects countries such as Finland, where biodiversity levels and biodiversity conservation costs are relatively low. If we include the double-sided asymmetry in the three-feature model, the largest stable coalition remains for the range of parameters considered (with the exception of the modification of , (alpha)) equal to the symmetrical model: . (s) – 2.). The difference lies in the composition of stable coalitions. Stable coalitions are made up of high-yield, low-maintenance countries (Bc type). We also note that, as in the symmetrical case, cooperation between countries is positively linked to the increase in the number of alphas. In general, stability may be lower and the instability of large coalitions may indicate that several partial agreements – made up of countries of the same type – could be more effective in terms of conservation outcomes than a single international agreement. Managing global environmental resources is a difficult task, as binding rules must be agreed internationally, but must be implemented at the national level. A wide range of international environmental agreements (IEAs) have been negotiated to address specific environmental considerations.
Major international conventions for biodiversity conservation include the Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS), the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), the Convention on Wetlands (also known as the Ramsar Convention). , the World Heritage Convention (WHC) and the International Convention on plant protection (IPPC).