The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. „Any treaty and international agreement reached by a member of the United Nations … Be registered and published by the Secretariat as soon as possible.“ (Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations) While mitigation and adjustment require more climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and has mobilized fewer private sector actions.  A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adjustment measures receive less public sector investment.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its grant-based adjustment funding by 2020.  The negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that „the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030, resulting from planned contributions at the national level, do not fall into scenarios at 2oC at the lowest cost, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030.“ and acknowledges that „much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the global average temperature increase to less than 2 degrees Celsius, reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.“  [Need for clarification] The NDC partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to improve cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial assistance they need to achieve large amounts of climate and sustainable development objectives. The NDC partnership is led by a steering committee made up of industrialized and developing countries and international institutions and is supported by a support unit organized by the World Resources Institute and based in Washington, D.C.
and Bonn, Germany. The NDC partnership is co-chaired by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and has 93 Member States, 21 institutional partners and 10 associate members. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of „promises“ or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with „nothing, only promises“ and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  The Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties that are „top down,“ characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives and must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets targets for commitment with force of law, the Paris Agreement, with a focus on consensual education, allows for voluntary and national definition of